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PHANGS–ALMA: Arcsecond CO(2–1) Imaging of Nearby Star-forming Galaxies

  • Authors: Adam K. Leroy, Eva Schinnerer, Annie Hughes, Erik Rosolowsky, Jérôme Pety, Andreas Schruba, Antonio Usero, Guillermo A. Blanc, Mélanie Chevance, Eric Emsellem, Christopher M. Faesi, Cinthya N. Herrera, Daizhong Liu, Sharon E. Meidt, Miguel Querejeta, Toshiki Saito, Karin M. Sandstrom, Jiayi Sun, Thomas G. Williams, Gagandeep S. Anand, Ashley T. Barnes, Erica A. Behrens, Francesco Belfiore, Samantha M. Benincasa, Ivana Bešlić, Frank Bigiel, Alberto D. Bolatto, Jakob S. den Brok, Yixian Cao, Rupali Chandar, Jérémy Chastenet, I-Da Chiang, Enrico Congiu, Daniel A. Dale, Sinan Deger, Cosima Eibensteiner, Oleg V. Egorov, Axel García-Rodríguez, Simon C. O. Glover, Kathryn Grasha, Jonathan D. Henshaw, I-Ting Ho, Amanda A. Kepley, Jaeyeon Kim, Ralf S. Klessen, Kathryn Kreckel, Eric W. Koch, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Kirsten L. Larson, Janice C. Lee, Laura A. Lopez, Josh Machado, Ness Mayker, Rebecca McElroy, Eric J. Murphy, Eve C. Ostriker, Hsi-An Pan, Ismael Pessa, Johannes Puschnig, Alessandro Razza, Patricia Sánchez-Blázquez, Francesco Santoro, Amy Sardone, Fabian Scheuermann, Kazimierz Sliwa, Mattia C. Sormani, Sophia K. Stuber, David A. Thilker, Jordan A. Turner, Dyas Utomo, Elizabeth J. Watkins, and Bradley Whitmore

2021 The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 257 43.

  • Provider: AAS Journals

Caption: Figure 15.

Comparisons between CO(2–1) measurements from PHANGS–ALMA and previous IRAM 30 m CO(2–1) mapping. All four panels compare measurements from our CO(2−1) data to CO(2−1) observations targeting the same galaxies using the HERA array receiver on the IRAM 30 m telescope (from HERACLES and follow-up work; Leroy et al. 2009, 2013b, and A. Schruba et al. 2021, in preparation). The top left panel compares integrated fluxes; in this figure we have applied our WISE3-based aperture correction to our PHANGS measurements. The bottom left panel compares line-integrated intensity between the two data sets at 17″ resolution. The right-hand panels show ratios between the two data sets; the top right one for galaxy-integrated ratios and the bottom right one for pixel-by-pixel ratios. Overall the agreement is good. The median galaxy-integrated ratio is 0.97 (−0.01 dex) with 0.057 dex, or about 14%, galaxy-to-galaxy scatter. We mark four strong outliers, listed in the text. The median pixel-wise ratio is 0.92 (0.037 dex) with 0.11 dex, or about 29%, scatter. The model shown in the bottom panel includes the measured statistical uncertainty and adopts a 20% gain uncertainty. We attribute most of the nonstatistical scatter to gain uncertainties associated with the IRAM 30 m observations, though formally these represent only relative calibration and image construction uncertainties.

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