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Rotation Periods, Inclinations, and Obliquities of Cool Stars Hosting Directly Imaged Substellar Companions: Spin–Orbit Misalignments Are Common

  • Authors: Brendan P. Bowler, Quang H. Tran, Zhoujian Zhang, Marvin Morgan, Katelyn B. Ashok, Sarah Blunt, Marta L. Bryan, Analis E. Evans, Kyle Franson, Daniel Huber, Vighnesh Nagpal, Ya-Lin Wu, Yifan Zhou

Brendan P. Bowler et al 2023 The Astronomical Journal 165 .

  • Provider: AAS Journals

Caption: Figure 9.

Line-of-sight stellar inclinations (i *, orange) compared with the orbital inclinations of substellar companions (i o , blue). In these “boomerang diagrams,” stellar inclinations are mirrored about the xy sky plane (i = 90°) because angular momentum vectors may point toward or away from the observer looking down along the z-axis (as depicted in the bottom-right panel of Figure 10). If i o agrees with i * (e.g., HD 49197), this implies that the host and companion are consistent with spin–orbit alignment; however, the true spin–orbit angle may nevertheless be nonzero in these cases. If i o and i * disagree (e.g., Gl 504), the system is misaligned by at least the difference in the inclination angles. See Sections 2 and 4.7 for details.

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